The cervix is the narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top of the vagina. Most cervical cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, arising in the squamous flattened epithelial cells that line the cervix. Adenocarcinoma, arising in glandular epithelial cells is the second most common type. Very rarely, cancer can arise in other types of cells in the cervix.
The early stages of cervical cancer may be completely asymptomatic.
Vaginal bleeding, contact bleeding, or rarely a vaginal mass may indicate the presence of malignancy. Also, moderate pain during sexual intercourse and vaginal discharge are symptoms of cervical cancer. In advanced disease, metastases may be present in the abdomen, lungs or elsewhere. Cancer screening using the Pap smear can identify precancerous and potentially precancerous changes in cervical cells and tissue.
Treatment of high-grade changes can prevent the development of cancer in many victims. While the pap smear is an effective screening test, confirmation of the diagnosis of cervical cancer or pre-cancer requires a biopsy of the cervix. Infection with some types of human papilloma virus HPV is the greatest risk factor for cervical cancer, followed by smoking.
Other risk factors include human immunodeficiency virus. Not all of the causes of cervical cancer are known, however, and several other contributing factors have been implicated.
Women's Health Care Physicians
Chlamydia is an STD that is characterized by symptoms such as urethritis, vaginal discharge, abdominal pain, and fever. Genital warts occur in clusters in the genital area and are caused by HPV, a virus which has been implicated in certain types of cancer. Genital herpes is caused by the Herpes simplex virus and has symptoms such as lesions on the genitalia, pain, and itching.
Key Terms sexually transmitted diseases STD : Sexually transmitted infections STI , also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases STD and venereal diseases VD , are illnesses that have a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of human sexual behavior, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex.
Erectile Dysfunction and the Blue Pill Erectile dysfunction ED is the inability to develop or maintain an erection during sexual intercourse. Learning Objectives Describe the causes of and treatments for erectile dysfunction.
Key Terms psychogenic erection : Erection achieved by erotic or emotional stimuli chronic periodontitis : Chronic periodontitis is a common disease of the oral cavity consisting of chronic inflammation of the periodontal tissues, often caused by accumulation of profuse amounts of dental plaque. Erectile dysfunction : Erectile dysfunction ED is sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual performance.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
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Diseases and Disorders of the Reproductive System | Boundless Anatomy and Physiology
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